A Clinical Practice Study of Korean “Han” Transformation (3)

KuiHee Song (캘리포니아 주립대학교 교수)

2023.06.05 | 조회 1117

The implications for Philosophical and Theoretical Perspective of Han Transformation Practice 

Building upon this promising practice, the implications are discussed for the philosophical and theoretical perspectives of Han transformation practice for the downtrodden in several ways. First, one of the most important implications of the findings from Korean “Han” transformation study is how to see grief or morning and its process related to trauma or tragic experience. The finding of Korean “Han” transformation suggests that “Han,” the suffering entangled narrative identity, can be seen as a new theory of grief or lamentation and useful concepts applied to its therapeutic process enhancing and possibly transforming Western perspective as well. One of the results derived from the analysis of “Han” revealed that the core client (a Korean mother) was in the situation where she was simultaneously crying and laughing in the period when she spoke about her suffering at the personal reflection phase. From a Western perspective, specifically Freudian theory of defense mechanism, it might be considered reaction formation in order to defend self against the objective reality that is in the world. But from a Korean perspective of “Han” we would not see it as defense mechanism or resistance. Instead, it is seen as the highest beauty of “Han” transformation. In particular, “Han-pul-li” or disentangling is a celebration of one’s tragedy. Even in facing the tragedy, many Korean people show eternal optimism facilitating therapeutic change. This is the power and beauty of “Han” (Kim & Choi, 1995). In this sense this crying and laughing is not a negative, passive aspect of reaction formation but rather a powerful aspect of a self-healing as self-compassion and self-soothing behavior. Particularly, crying is a self-loathing behavior as an emotional regulation strategy which is considered as normal behavior (Gracanin, Bylsma, and Vingerhoets, 2014). These kinds of change processes of Han transformation indicate the two sides of Dao of Han, which emphasizes the dual importance of explicit external manifestation and implicit deeper spirituality aims for mutually loving and beneficial creation-transformation narratives. This stunning concept also suggests that all creation looks forward to creation-transfiguration for the benefit of all.

In analysis, Mrs. Kim gained insight that her core characteristic is one of deep inner strength, and resilience that did not want to compromise and live in a world as cruel as the world she knew: Provincial “patriarchal” Korean society only provided for her experience related to poverty and oppression. Her suffering was deeply rooted in poverty in the 1960s and 70s of South Korea. But her social construction of subjective experience with poverty had to do more with gender role issues. At the local Korean community where she was born and grew up until immigrating to America, she saw her mother who worked with limited opportunities to make a living and was treated negatively. This study suggests that women’s issues of discriminatory social status in society should be treated seriously and examined closely with regard to child issues of abuse in the family. Mental health workers must strive to alter the conditions that limit social progress for minority groups, including repressed women. The problems of children, women, and families in the minority groups can never be divorced from the problems of the larger society in which they live. Social workers must be able to assess the effects of continuing prejudice and discrimination on the well-being and self-agency of their clients. Women clients should be allowed to have a voice of authorship with their lives to see the possibilities of availing themselves new choices in life. They must meet continuing challenges and dilemmas. As evidenced in this case study, when the mother’s version of the story about her life as a woman took a swift to the expansion of alternative choices for herself and interactions with others, she was able to align all aspects of her family in a manner that she decided was best. She arranged her multiple selves with family members in such a way that even the family relational and behavioral components of herself and others, which previously seemed least important, became valuable.

Next, the other important theoretical perspective to which we need to bring attention in working with Korean clients is practice theory. Practice theories focus on client and helping activities. Practice theories offer both explanations of certain behaviors or situation and broad guidelines about how those behaviors or situations can be changed. Those theories also serve as a road map for an intervention that will bring about a certain type of change. This study reveals the significant role the concepts of a relational view of self and narrative identity played in understanding the client’s change process. Central to the many linguistic and socially derived narratives that emerge in behavioral organization are those that contain the elements articulated as self-stories, self-descriptions, or first-person narratives. The development of these self-defining narratives takes place in social and local context involving conversation and action with significant others, including one’s self. A linguistic and dialogic view of self emphasizes this social nature of the selfas emerging in and embodied in relationships (Anderson, 1997). It also emphasizes our capacity to create meaning through conversation. This linguistic relational view of self-proposed by Gergen (1987, 1989, 1991), supports that the self (and other) is realized in language and dialogue and becomes a linguistic dialogical self. Inherent in this view is that a narrative never represents a single voice, but rather a multiple authored self, and because we are constituted in dialogue, we are ever-changing (Anderson, 1997). This linguistic relational view of self is in sharp contrast with psychology’s more usual definition of self, which Bruner (1990) chides for being “whatever is measured by tests of self-concepts” (p. 101). Selves we construct are the outcomes of this [narrative, story-telling, and language] process of meaning construction. Selves are not isolated nuclei of consciousness locked in the head, but are “distributed” interpersonally. Then this study suggests that we must pay attention not only to the construction of the “I” but also to the construction of, and importance of, the otherthe you. As Shotter (1989, 1993, 1995) emphasizes, the relationship is ours, not just mine.

In this study, Mrs. Kim, showed a progressive change in her perception of narrative-self. Certain elements of independent view of self are incorporated into her interdependent-relational view. The incorporated construct of the self was the mix of these two views that recognized the individual’s dignity and needs (in this study, woman’s and child’s self-dignity and needs). This study also revealed that there could be a growing realization in the case of Mrs. Kim that better aspects of Korean cultural traditions could be cultivated and preserved from the certain darker Western influences of which are characterized as “free choice,” “rights,” “freedom,” “materialism,” or “moral decay.” For example, respect for learning, family honor, harmony with others, emotional security, and family loyalty have been retained by Mrs. Kim very much. Given the facts, this study suggests that child protective services policy should take a serious look into the significance of the variance in self-construal change; and directing caring parent-child relations in the context of new family relationships meanings for Korean immigrant parents and families.

From a postmodern collaborative approach, Anderson (1997) proposes the following philosophical assumptions:

Human (family) systems are language- and meaning-generating systems.

Their construction of reality is forms of social action rather than independent individual mental processes.

An individual mind is a social composition, and self, therefore, becomes a social, relational composition.

The reality and meaning that we attribute to others and ourselves and to experiences and events of our selves are interactional phenomena created and experienced by individuals in conversation and action (through language) with one another and with themselves.

Language is generative, gives order and meaning to our lives and our world, and functions as a form of social participation.

Knowledge is relational and is embodied and generated in language and our everyday practice (p. 3).


These assumptions have profound implications in every human endeavor, especially for therapy and therapists, in the way a therapist thinks about human beings and our roles in their lives, the way a therapist conceptualizes and participates in a therapy system, therapy process, and therapy relationship. The data from the study and postmodern literature suggests that a positive relationship existed between the therapist’s response in the relational-dialogical process and client’s dialoging process.

Last, another important theoretical perspective to which we need to bring attention in working with Korean clients is spirituality. Mrs. Kim moved through stages of Han transformation, including the highest level of emptying mind. This study demonstrated that a Korean immigrant family client has many spiritual philosophies and practical insights that are little known in the American social work profession, including perspectives of Buddhism, Confucianism, and particularly Korean ethnophilosophical thoughts. Buddhist spirituality may be described as the consistent exercise of self-effort, directed to the attainment of enlightenment for self and all others. Given the great effort required, traditional Buddhism stresses the importance of monastic life-style for this spiritual path. In contrast, Confucian spirituality may be described practicing humanness and mindfulness in all aspects of daily life, such that cultivation of self and serving society are complementary (Tu, 1984, 1985; Canda, 1988, 1989, 1994). Many immigrant Koreans continue to combine helping insights and resources from all three ways on an as-needed basis. It is clear that the traditional philosophies of humanity and social services in Korea differ markedly in beliefs from those of the Euro-American. Since the 1980s American mental health professional have begun to take seriously insight from Buddhism (mainly Zen) and various forms of Spiritism and shamanism. However, Korean ethnophilosophical thoughts such as Jeung San Do and Jeungyeok, as well as Confucianism, are completely absent from American mental health influences despite their strong significance for not only many Asian Americans but also for all people. For that reason, the following discussion focuses on Korean ethnophilosophical spirituality that describes three principles of Haewon, Sangsaeng, and Boeun associated with Han transformation processes.

Over the past decades, there has been growing emphasis on the ideas of the Latter Heaven’s Order associated with ethical philosophical principles. Some leading Korean ethnophilosophical scholars (Ahn, 2019b, 2020a; Yang, 2020, 2021a, 2021b; You, 2001, 2011, 2021) have profoundly cultivated the dimension of spirituality. The literature on the philosophical perspective of the Latter Heaven’s Order originates from three Korean ethnic Holy Scriptures (i.e, Cheonbugyeong, The Scripture of Heavenly Code, Samilsingo, 366 characters in total, and Chamjeon Gye gyeong, The Scripture of Precepts for becoming a Complete One), Hongikingan thought, and Hongbeomgujoo, Grand Constitution of Nine Categories, as well as Gaebyeok thought from Jeung San Do and Jeungyeok (Ahn, 2019a; Sangsaeng Cultural Research Institute, 2021a; Sangsaeng Cultural Research Institute, 2021b; Sangsaeng Cultural Research Institute 2021c; Sangsaeng Cultural Research Institute, 2021d). Particularly, Jeung San Do’s idea about Trinity One God-led humane culture has a long and deep historical root in Korean culture that originated from over 9000 years ago (Ahn, 2019a). Korean ethnophilosophical perspectives from Jeung San Do and Jeungyeok are theistic in a different way than the theism of Jewish and Christian traditions. A concept of Samsin in Jeung San Do is defined as “the primordial Spirit that is one with the universe and is the source of all existence through three means: by creating, by edifying, and by governing” (Jeung San Do Dojeon Publication Society, 2016, p.299). In spirit teaching, people learn “about God, about the spirits through heaven and earth, about the nature of the universe, and how to conduct their lives” (Jeung San Do Dojeon Publication Society, 2016, p. 300).

The spiritual teachings of Jeung San Do conceptualize three daily practice principles of Haewon (resolution of bitterness and grief), SangSaeng(mutual life-giving and life-saving), and Boeun (requital of benevolence) aiming for the government of creation-transformation. As a beneficial philosophical concept, the perspective of Wonsibanbon (원시반본原始返本), which means “Inquiring into the Beginning and Returning to the Origin” (Ahn, 2020a, p. 258), provides an ultimate way of Han transformation through three principles: Haewon(Resolution of bitterness and grief), Sangsaeng (Mutual life-giving and life-saving) and Boeun(Requital of benevolence) (Ahn 2019b, 2020a; You, 2003a, You, 2013b). They are considered to be the right path of life. In-depth knowledge of three practice principles of Wonsibanbon (원시반본原始返本) is essential for understanding the social-spiritual change structure of Han transformation and for developing advanced level skills in Han transformation practice. Because three practice principles can have many benefits, therapist as a facilitator of healing process should strive to make these concepts applicable to client with Han. Therapist may find the following guiding values helpful when traying to enhance client’s Han transformation practice.

The Dao of Boeun (requital of benevolence)

Ahn (2019b) defines Boeun as “repaying the grace and benevolence that one has received. Three foundations of Heavens, Earth and Humanity give and receive grace and benevolence to one another as they change and mature” (p.334). The greatest dao of Boeun focuses on Reverence of Heaven and Earth, and reverence of parents (Dojeon 11:94). Repaying parent’s grace is the most important practice associated with the path to become the Taeil (human noble) and true humans as pursue enlightenment into the truth. This requital of benevolence even extends to honor ancestors, who gave birth to us and are the direct root of our lives (Ahn, 2019b). The purpose of the dao of Boeun (requital of benevolence) is explained as cultivating “harmony and oneness that reconnects the threads of life of nature, spirit, and humanity for moving forward to the dao of Sangsaeng into the order of mutual betterment” (Ahn, 2019b, p. 335). The dao of Boeun is also a way to cultivate gratitude. This experience can translate into positive feelings on both sides, help feel more connected with others, and stronger relationships.


The Dao of Haewon (resolution of bitterness and grief)

Among these three principles, the concept of resolution of bitterness and grief is vital for the government of creation-transformation, and underscores the importance of Han resolution as a fundamental building block of The Latter Heaven. “The resolution of bitterness and grief is a central goal of Sangjenim’s spiritual work-the work of Renewing Heaven and Earth to facilitate a world of harmony in the later Heaven” (Jeung San Do Jeon Publication Society, 2016, p. 298-299). Although mutual life-giving and life-saving and requital of benevolence are equally important, the resolution of bitterness and grief is the first step and of foremost importance to opening mutual life-giving and life-saving energies (Ahn, 2019b; You, 2001a; You, 2011b). It is “the resolution of the bitterness and grief of all spirits and humans that had accumulated through the Early Heaven” (Jeung San Do Jeon Publication Society, 2016, p. 299). Particularly, therapist may find the following meaning of the dao of Haewon(해원解寃의 도) helpful when traying to enhance the client’s Han transformation practice by using guiding practice principles (Ahn, 2019, pp. 355-356):


First, Haewon contains the fundamental ideology of peace. As the mind is the foundation of Heaven and Earth’s life, a person’s deeply rooted bitterness and grief can block their energy. Finding the roots of bitterness and grief and untangling the ties and knots of bitterness and grief is the fundamental path of salvation, which is to find true peace for humanity.

Second, Haewon contains the ideology of freedom and maturity. As human beings receive the incomplete light and energy of the universe due to the early Heaven’s Yun-dosu program, tilting of celestial bodies in the direction of Yang energy, they can be immature, and moreover humans are confined by the destiny of the mutual conflict..losing the freedom of the mind to bitterness and grief. True peace and harmony can only be achieved when humans resolve their bitterness and grief to regain the freedom of the mind.

Third, Haewon contains the completed ideology of love and compassion. Through Haewon, one can let go of all the bitterness, grief, and conflict, as well as the Cheok (vengefulness). It helps one reach the fundamental purpose of love. Haewon embraces not only love and compassion but also transcends love and compassion.


The Dao of Sangsaeng (mutual life-giving and life-saving)

The importance of Korean ethnophilosophy for enlightened Sangsaeng action and peaceful living is an essential part of Korean ethnophilosophical thoughts. They emphasize human dignity and human fulfillment by change from the early heaven’s order of Oppression of Yin and Respect of Yang (억음존양抑陰尊陽) to the later heaven’s order of the positive and dynamic value of balance and harmony between women (yin) and men(yang) associated with the principles of Choyang yuleum (조양율음(調陽律陰), yin and yang dongdeok(음양동덕 陰陽同德), and Balanced yin and yang(정음정양 正陰正陽). Particularly, Jeongyeak as Korean numerological philosophical thought discusses organismic reciprocal systems view of family and social relationship. The concept of balanced yin(women) and yang(men) 정음정양(正陰正陽) where Women (Yin) and Men (Yang) exist in balance and harmony (Ahn, 2019b; Yang, 2020, 2021). Importantly, Korean ethnophilosophical thoughts emphasize human dignity and human fulfillment by change from the early heaven’s order of Oppression of women (yin) and Respect of Yang (억음존양抑陰尊陽) to the later heaven’s order of the positive and dynamic value of balance and harmony between women (yin) and men(yang). For Jeungyeok, balanced yin and yang (정음정양 正陰正陽) aims ultimately for mature humanitarianism of life and peace through creative absolute human identity. The idea of human nobility of the cosmic autumn (가을 우주의 인존人尊 사상) reflects enlightened Sangsang action. All human beings are treated equally with dignity in all existence in the later Heaven Era (Ahn, 2019b). It is now the age in which humans determines the outcome (Dojeon 3:13).

The three principles have reciprocal effects on the gradual process of Han transformation. As a family works on the issue of Haewon internally, a reciprocal pattern of interaction emerges. Haewon is vital for the government of creation-transformation, interlocking with Sangsaeng. The interaction patterns that develop can be beneficial to the family to establish the new patterns that help the family achieve desired goals and to ensure the socio-emotional satisfaction of members. The importance of equality within the family should be emphasized at the very beginning. Boeun affects the client more in the higher stages of Han transformation but the interplay is always between Haewon and Sangsaeng.

This process is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Three Principles for Han Transformation Practice in Family


Future study will be needed to consider the universality of the Korean Han Transformation model and examine whether Korean Han transformation model has the same beneficial effect on Western clients facing grief and trauma as well.


Jeongyeok Eight Trigrams

Jeongyeok philosophical thought articulates the right order of change in The Later Autumn Gaebyeok’s mental and spiritual culture. The core idea of Geumhwagyoyeok (금화교역(金火交易) in Jeongyeok philosophical thought envisions Han transformation through change activating self-cleaning for the right alignments in the multiple systems levels from the individual through societal, through cosmic dimensions according to Wonsibanbon thinking, “seeking out the beginning and returning to the origin” (Jeung San Do Jeon Publication Society, 2016, p. 299). As a universal principle of the cosmic autumn, in human context, seeking out the beginning and returning to the origin encompasses a conscious awareness of and effort to recover one’s self, ancestry, history, and spirituality as a process of maturation. This principle also includes the cultures and civilization of the early heaven becoming one and reaching fruition in the Later heaven. Jeongyeok Eight Trigrams presents the structure of functional family relationship in a comparison of projected family relationship with the observed family relationship from The Eight Trigrams revealed by King Wen. A child is misplaced between father and mother, which is the marital system as opposed to being in a close and intimate relationship. From the Eight Trigrams revealed by King Wen an unhealthy family structure is presented. In contrast, Jeongyeok eight Trigrams shows a healthy family structure with proper boundaries between family members, particularly, between husband and wife as a couple with mutual respect and power, as well as between parents and children with proper distance. The well-established family boundary is key to making all members healthy relationships with the family. Each family member’s personal story is addressed to make healthy boundaries in the family system by changing family rules grounded in an enmeshed and disengaged family structure.

Based on Geumhwagyoyeok’s 금화교역, 金火交易 model of the united completion of cosmic change and humanity change in the Latter Heaven Gaebyeok, Jeongyeok Eight Trigrams 정역팔괘도(正易八卦圖) provides similar insight into understanding the nature of healthy functional family structures and narratives. The Eight Trigrams revealed by King Wen in Figure 3 presents unhealthy family structures that result in enmeshed and/or disengaged family relationships. In this way, families maintain family’s homeostasis that is dysfunctional. In contrast, Jeongyeok Eight Trigrams 정역팔괘도(正易八卦圖) presents a healthy family structure establishing clear boundaries and shifting the hierarchical structure between couples, children, parents, and other family members with strengthening a subsystems family system. Establishing mother and father as a parental sub-system and separation between child and parents is essential for a healthy family where the husband (Yang) and wife (Yin) co-exist and respect each other mutually. To form and shape healthy family relationships, the family solves their problems not through first-order changes (changes of single behaviors), but second-order changes (alterations of the family’s problem saturated norms, roles, and status hierarchies) (Lair, 1993, 1995; Minuchin, 1974).


Figure 3:문왕팔괘도: 여름의 인도人道(長易)

The Eight Trigrams revealed by King Wen:The principle of humanity in cosmic summer.  

Figure 4:정역팔괘도: 가을의 지도地道(成易)

The Eight Trigrams of Jeong-Yeok revealed by Gim Il-Bu: The principle of earth in cosmic autumn.

It is worth noticing that at a fundamental level, postmodernist philosophical assumptions are congruent with and supportive of virtues and principles reflected in Jeung San Do, particularly three precepts and Jeungyeok’s Balanced Yin and Yang idea regarding compassion and social justice for downtrodden humanity. The Korean ethnophilosophical thoughts support the mission of the postmodern social sciences and guide postmodern social scientists in creating a larger and deeper humane vision of he world. Finally, the literature on the principle of birth, growth, harvest, and rest (생장염장生長斂藏) supports the empirical data on stage theory of Han transformation study. Ahn (2019b) explains that “The natural order can only exhibit eternal homeostasis when nature has a certain circular order of division and unification, which is the nature of the change of the Early Heaven and the Later Heaven. Through this cyclical process of change and transformation, the universe can exist eternally” (p. 35). This study indicates a kind of circular order of division and unification throughout the four stages of Han transformation for Mrs. Kim. The first two stages represent order of division seen in The Eight Trigrams revealed by King Wen as the principle of humanity in cosmic summer. The third and fourth stages are associated with order of unification seen in The Eight Trigrams of Jeong- Yeok as the principle of earth in cosmic autumn.

Yang (2020) points out that “The idea of Geumhwagyoyeok (금화교역(金火交易) is the universal principle of the cosmic self-creation, self-organization, and self-transformation for the renewal of life. This is a dynamic principle that is intertwined with all time and space to connect all things in space and sustain all lives in time. This principle is the cosmic self-purification. This changes the way of existence. This represents the cosmic movement of not only self-denial of conflict order but also cosmic self-identity attestment as a cosmological principle of change and transformation” (pp.145-147). This literature supports the most profound evidence of advanced transfiguration of Han. Jeugn San Do shares the common idea of renewing the mind as “the way to realize a Taeil human (태일인간 太一人間) through the restoration of spirituality and spiritual-cultural revolution” (Ahn, 2020b, p.4). The ultimate goal of the way of a Taeil human is to achieve oneness with the universe, heaven and earth through “the Cultivation of both inner Nature (Seong) and Life Force (Myeong)” (Ahn, 2020b, p. 14). Ahn (2020b) emphasizes that “in traditional Korean culture of spiritual discipline Jeong is added to the dyad of Seong and Myeong to make the triad of Seong (Spirit), Myeong (Qi), and Jeong (Essence) 성명정(性命精). Seong (Spirit), Myeong (Qi), and Jeong (Essence) 성명정(性命精) should be cultivated harmoniously in the triad to realize perfect enlightenment” (p. 15). This triad cultivation practice also simultaneously enhances enlightened Sangsang action and peaceful and harmonious living that supports an essential part of Han Transformation.

These concepts are helpful to apply the unified model for Han Transformation treatment. It is worth attempting to integrate alternative models of artistic and spiritual humanitarian practice. For example, the author proposes a Doa of Han model of Han transformation treatment that integrates elements of different Jeongyeok and Jeung San Do practices, particularly Dao of Haewon, Saengsang, and Boeun and Transformative Creation-Maturation into postmodern conversational dialogue practice. Fostering a mutual-aid system in the family is a common ingredient of this unified practice model. The author would suggest that family development and the creation of family structure for increasing the autonomy of family members as the family develops are also common elements of conceptualization of a Doa of Han model. In-depth knowledge of life-organization or agency and life -regulation is essential for understanding ultimate structure of Han transformation stages to expand advanced-level skills for Han treatment.

This notion is also associated with the concept of “종어간(終於艮)시어간(始於艮)” (Yang, 2020, p.79; Yang, 2021a, p. 383; Yang, 2021b, p.433). Han is made up of two Chinese characters: heart or mind 마음 and Gan. Han is seen as the heart or mind of Gan(). Regarding 간괘(艮卦) in Jeongyeok eight trigrams 정역팔괘(正易八卦), Yang (2020) explains the principle of ganbang (艮方). Gan () is a gwae () when there is the end stage and the new beginning stage of all things, which means Gan () as 종어간(終於艮)시어간(始於艮). The most important meaning of Gangwae is that all things start and end in the Gan. As Yang (2020) states, “Two, the orders of the early heaven and the later heaven, are like two sides of a coin. By principle, they can’t separate and are not independent. They exist as a paired unity of togetherness or co-presence. The order of early heaven appears from the front and generates inevitable conflict and imbalance system in a process of birth and growth, but it always aims for fulfilling harmony and balance, as well as perfection” (p. 145). Considering two sides of Han stories as being still to be fulfilled as incomplete transfiguration, metaphors for Han transfiguration are: The best fruit comes out of the most drastic pruning; The purest gold comes out of the fiercest fire; Going through the deepest waters.

The author suggests a mindfulness based narrative transformation Han model as a valuable connection particularly between postmodern dialogical conversation and a self-purification technical method as the way of ultimate serenity 정정(定靜), the ultimate enlightenment to become The Ultimate One. Further systematic study on the nature of conceptual and practical integration of two parts is needed in the future.



Mrs. Kim moved through all four stages of Han transformation in a progressive and oscillating fashion.

A higher stage of Han transformation co-exists with balanced family relationship (change from conflict-based family rules to mutually beneficial family rules), caring parenting behavior, and dialogic self-speech development. The study indicates that the elements of therapist dialogical-relational conversation processes for Han transformation was helpful. Problem-saturated Han stories were transformed for the best interest for the rest of her family and local community. Mrs. Kim’s perspective was transfigured for the benefit of herself, other, and the world by renewing her mind though the words of God. The clinical practice study suggests that spiritual awareness and awakening existed for Mrs. Kim when she moved from a lower level to a higher level of Han transformation (i.e., the fourth level, emptying the mind).

Finally, the idea of mutually beneficial international partnership for professional-scholastic development and achievement involves the desired attainment of unity by extracting the essence of the cultures (including spirituality and philosophical and theoretical ideas of humanity) of the East and the West. Reflecting the spirit of Gantai hapdeok(간태합덕 艮兌合德), the author would hope for a mutually beneficial scholastic exchange between the West and the East in the future. Gangwae (艮卦) is a boy (少男) or a fruit in terms of plants, and Taegwae (兌卦) is a girl (少女) or a flower. Boy or flowers and gird or fruits have a causal relationship (Ahn, 2019b; Yang 2021b)).

In closing, everything happens to fit to the pattern for the universe. Han full suffering is never for nothing. Dao of Han is like a life journey of transformation by renewing of the mind.



I cannot express enough gratitude to Dr. Jae Hack Yang for his providing generously valuable discussions, suggestions, and comfort that led to this paper for the last five months. I would offer my sincere appreciation for the learning opportunities provided by Dr. Jae Hack Yang.

I would also like to appreciate Dr. Chul You for his encouragement and feedback to help me to strengthen my work. Thank you to other research fellows at the Sang Saeng Cultural Research Institute who provided me with great assistance.

Finally, special thank you to Jey Sook Chae, Guardian of Jeung San Do for her translating my difficult article into Korean, which makes it be easily understood by readers who are interested in learning more of Korean Han transformative process in a clinical social work practice incorporated with Korean ethnophilosophical practice ideas.


Note: Dr. Jae Hack Yang is a research fellow at the Sang Saeng Cultural Research Institute, Dae Jeon, South Korea.



Adebimpe, V. (1981). Overview: White norms and psycho diagnoses of Black patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 279-285.

Ahn, S.-S. (1988). Generative structure of “Han” and its dynamic imagination: -centered the work of “Chohon” and “Baettaragi.” Jeju National University Proceedings- Humanities and Social Sciences, 27, 13-33.

Ahn, G.J. (2020a). The secret of survival. Daejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Books Publishing.

Ahn, G.J. (2020b). The spiritual treasure corpus: The way to the ultimate serenity. Daejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Books Publishing.

Ahn, G.J. (2019a). Hwandangogi. Korean Translation and Annotation by Ahn Gyeong- Jeon Hwandangogi. Daejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Books Publishing.

Ahn, G.J. (2019b). The truth of Jeung San Do. Daejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Books Publishing.

Anderson, H. (1997). Conversation, language, and possibilities: A postmodern approach to therapy. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Anderson, J.D. (1992). Family-centered practice in the 1990s: A multicultural perspective. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 1(4), 17-29.

Anderson, T. (1987). The reflection team: Dialogue and meta-dialogue in clinical work. Family Process, 26, 415-428.

Anderson, T. (1990). The reflecting team: Dialogues and dialogues about dialogues. Broadstairs, Kent, England: Borgmann.

Anderson, H., & Goolishian, H. (1988). Human systems as linguistic systems: Preliminary and evolving ideas about the implications for clinical theory. Family Process, 27, 371-393.

Anderson, H., & Goolishian, H. (1990). Beyond cybernetics: Comments on Atkinson & Health’s further thoughts on second order family therapy. Family Process, 29, 157-163.

Anderson, H., & Goolishian, H. (1992). The client is the expert: A not-knowing approach to therapy. In S.

McNamee & K. J. Gergen (Eds.), Therapy as social construction (pp. 25-39). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Anderson, H., Goolishian, H., Pulliam, G., & Winderman, L. (1986). The Galveston Family Institute: Some personal and historical perspectives. In D. Efron (Ed.), Journeys: Expansions of the strategic and systemic therapies. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel.

Anderson, E.H., Goolishian, H., & Winderman, L. (1986). Problem determined system: Toward transformation in family therapy. Journal of Strategic and System Therapies, 5, 1-14.

Atkinson, B.J., & Heath, A.W. (1990). The limits of explanation and evaluation. Family Process, 7, 202-215.

Becvar, D.S., & Becvar, R.J. (2000). Family therapy: A systemic integration (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Bilingsley, A., & Giovannoni, J.M. (1972). Children of the storm: Black children and American child welfare. New York, NY: Harcourt.

Bråten, S. (1992). Paradigms of autonomy: Dialogical or monological? In A. Bebbrajo & G. Teubner (Eds.), State, law, economy as Autopoietic systems/European yearbook in the sociology of law 1991-92 (pp. 77-97). Oslo, Norway: Scandinavian University Press.

Brown, S.P. (1997). Has the emphasis on multicultural practice resulted in more effective and appropriate services for ethnic minority clients? In D. de Anda (Ed.), Controversial issues in multiculturalism (pp. 14-26). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Canda, E.R. (1988). Spirituality, religious diversity, social work practice. Social Casework, 69(4), 238-247.

Cecchin, G. (1987). Hypothesizing, circularity, and neutrality revisited: An invitation to curiosity. Family Process, 26, 405-414.

Chessick, R. (1990). Hermeneutics for psychotherapists. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 44, 256-273.

Choi, I.-B.(1995). Ganwae (艮卦): The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved from http://encykorea.aks.ac.kr/Contents/Item/E0000509

Choi, S.C. (1994). Shim-Jung psychology: The indigenous Korean perspective. Asian Psychologies: Indigenous, Social and Cultural Perspectives, 2, 1-38.

Choi, S.C., & Choi, S. (1990, July). We-ness: A Korean discourse of collectivism. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Individualism and Collectivism: Psychocultural Perspective from East and West, Seoul, Korea.

Choi, S.-C. (1988, Eds.). Psychology of the Korean people: Collectivism and individualism (pp. 85-99). Seoul, Korea: Dong-A Publishing & Printing.

Choi, S Y. (2011, February 21). The meaning of Chinese character WonHan. 怨恨. Retrieved from https://m.blog.naver.com/choisy1227/90107451578.

Choi, Y.-H., Kang, S.-P., Ko, S.-H., & Cho, M.-O. (1992). Study on folk caring in Korea for cultural nursing. Seoul, Korea: SoMoon Publishing.

Crain, W. (2000). Vygotsky’s social-historical theory of cognitive development. In W. Crain (4th ed.), Theories of development: Concepts and applications (pp. 213-243). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Daehan History and Culture Association. Samilsingo (366 characters in total), folder (2021). Daejeon, South Korea Daehan History and Culture Association.

Daehan History and Culture Association. The Grand Constitution of Nine Categories, folder (2021). Daejeon, South Korea: Daehan History and Culture Association.

Daehan History and Culture Association. The Scripture of Heavenly Code, folder (2021). Daejeon, South Korea: Daehan History and Culture Association

David, G. (2013). Brainspotting: The Revolutionary New Therapy for Rapid and Effective Change. Sounds True.

Dell, P., & Goolishian, H. (1981). Order through fluctuation: An evolutionary epistemology for human systems. Australian Journal of Family Therapy, 21, 75-184.

Epston, D., & White, M. (1992). Experience, contradiction, narrative, and imagination: Selected papers of David Epston and Michael White, 1989-1991. Adelaide, Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications.

Eron, J.B., & Lund, T.W. (1993). How problems evolve and dissolve: Integrating narrative and strategic concepts. Family Process, 32, 291-309.

Fleuridas, C., Nelson, T.S., & Rosenthal, D.M. (1986). The evolution of circular questions: Training family therapists. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 12, 113-127.

Freeman, M. (1993). Rewriting the self: History, memory, narrative. New York, NY: Routledge.

Flax, J. (1990). Thinking fragments: Psychoanalysis, feminism, and postmodernism in the contemporary West. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Gergen, K.J. (1982). Toward transformation in social knowledge. New York, NY: Spring-Verlag.

Gergen, K.J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. American Psychologist, 40, 266-275.

Gergen, K.J. (1991). The saturated self. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Gergen, K.J. (1994). Realities and relationships: Soundings in social construction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gergen, K.J., Hoffman, L., & Anderson, H. (1995). Is diagnosis a disaster: A constructionist trialogue. In F. Kaslow (Ed.), Handbook of relational diagnosis (pp. 102-118). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Gonzalez, R.C., Biever, J., & Gardner, G.T. (1994). The multicultural perspective in therapy: A social constructionist approach. Psychotherapy, 31(3), 515-524.

Goolishian, H. (1990). Therapy as a linguistic system: Hermeneutics, narrative, and meaning. The Family Psychology, 6(3), 44-45.

Goolishian, H., & Anderson, H. (1987). Language systems and therapy: An evolving idea. Journal of Psychotherapy, 24(3), 529-538.

Goolishian, H., & Anderson, H. (1990). Understanding the therapeutic process: From individuals & families to systems in language. In F. Kaslow (Ed.), Voices in family psychology (pp. 91-113). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Goolishian, H.A., & Winderman, L. (1988). Constructivism, autopoiesis and problem determined systems. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 9(1), 130-143

Gracanin, A., Bylsma, L.M., and Vingerhoets, Ad J.J. M. (2014). Is crying a self-soothing behavior? Frontiers in psuchology. Doi10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00502.

Hoffman, L. (1993). Exchanging voices: A collaborative approach to family therapy. London, England: Karnac Books.

Holquist, M. (1994). Dialogism: Bakhtin and his world. New York, NY: Routledge.

Jansson, B.S. (1994). Social policy: From theory to policy practice. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Jeung San Do Dojeon Publication Society (2020, Haewon). Jeung San Do Dojeon: Life Dojeon. Taejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Publishing Company.

Jeung San Do Dojeon Publication Society (2016). The teachings of Jeung San Do: Illustrated through selected passages of the Dojeon. Taejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Publishing Company.

Jeungsando (2016). Jeungsando, truth. Retrieved from https://gdlsg.tistory.com/1328.

Kelly, G.A. (1955). The psychology of the personal constructs (Vols. 1-2). New York, NY: Norton.

Kim,Y.G. (1996). Han (). The Academy of Korean Studies. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. Retrieved from http://encykorea.aks.ac.kr/Contents/Item/E0060943.

Kleinman, A. (1986). Social origins of distress and disease. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Kleinman, A. (1988). The illness narratives: Suffering, healing, and the human condition. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Laird, J. (1993). Family-centered practice: Cultural and constructionist reflections. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 8(2), 77-109.

Laird, J. (1995). Family-centered practice in the postmodern era. Families in Society, 76, 150-162.

Latting, J.E., & Zundel, C. (1986). World view differences between clients and counselors. Social Casework, 67(9), 533-541.

Lax, W. (1992). Postmodern thinking in a clinical practice. In S. McNamee & K.J. Gergen (Eds.), Therapy as social construction (pp. 69-85). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Lee, K.T. (1987). Column in Chosun Ilbo, Seoul, Korea, December 15.

Lee, K.T. (1991). Hangukineu buruet [Korean manners]. Seoul, Korea: Shinwonmonhwasa.

Lee, S.M. (1991). Child abuse and neglect in the Korean immigrant community (Unpublished master’s thesis). California State University, Long Beach.

Lee, S.W. (1994). The Cheong space: A zone of non-exchange in Korean human relationships. In G. Yoon & S.-C.

Choi (Eds.), Psychology of Korean people: Collectivism and individualism (pp.85-99). Seoul, Korea: Dong-A Publishing & Printing.

Madison, G.B. (1988). The hermeneutics of postmodernity. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

McNamee, S., & Gergen, K.J. (1992). Therapy as social construction. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and Family Therapy. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674292369.

Mueller-Vollmer, K. (1989). Language, mind, and artifact: An outline of hermeneutic theory since the Enlightenment. In K. Mueller-Vollmer (Ed.), The hermeneutics reader (pp. 1-53). New York, NY: Continuum.

Nelson, K. (1989). Monologue as representation of real-life experience. In K. Nelson (Ed.), Narratives from the crib (pp. 27-72). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Nichols, M. P., & Schwartz, R.C. (1998). Family therapy: Concepts and methods (4th Ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Oh, W. C. (2021). Spiritual Transformation of Han: Four Levels of Transference in Self- Psychology. Journal of Pastoral Care Counsel, 75(4):267-273. doi:1 0.1177/ 15423050211051971.

Piaget, J. (1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Penn, P. (1982). Circular questioning. Family Process, 21(3), 267-280.

Robbins, S., Canda, E., & Chatterjee, P. (1996, February). Political, ideological, and spiritual dimensions of human behavior: Expanding the HBSE curriculum. Paper presented at the meeting of the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE), Washington, D.C.

Rosen, H. (1991). Constructionism: Personality, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. In D. Keating & H. Rosen (Eds.), Constructivist perspectives on developmental psychology and atypical development (pp. 149-171). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sampson, E.E. (1981). Cognitive psychology as ideology. American Psychologist, 36, 730-743.

Sansaeng Cultural Research Institute (2021a). Chamjeon Gyegyeong, The Scripture of Precepts for Becoming a Complete One (Korean-English translated). Daejeon, South Korea: Daehan History and Culture Association.

Sansaeng Cultural Research Institute (2021b). Cheonbugyeong, The Scripture of Heavenly Code (Korean-English translated by Translation Department of Original World History and Culture, Sangsaeng Books). Daejeon, South Korea: Daehan History and Culture Association.

Sansaeng Cultural Research Institute. (2021c). Hongbemgujoo, The Grand Constitution of Nine Categories (Korean-English translated by Translation Department of Original World History and Culture, Sangsaeng Books). Daejeon, South Korea: Daehan History and Culture Association.

Sansaeng Cultural Research Institute. (2021d). Samilsingo, 366 characters in total (Korean-English translated by Translation Department of Original World History and Culture, Sangsaeng Books). Daejeon, South Korea: Daehan History and Culture Association.

Shapiro, G., & Sica, A. (1984). Hermeneutics. Amherst, MA: University of Amherst Press.

Seikkula, J. (1993). The aim of therapy is generating dialogue: Bakhtin and Vygotsky in family therapy system. Human Systems Journal, 4, 33-48.

Seikkula, J. (1995). From monologue to dialogue in consultation within larger systems. Human Systems: The Journal of Systemic Consultation & Management, 6, 21-42.

Shotter, J. (1984). Social accountability and selfhood. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Shotter, J. (1989). The myth of mind and the mistake of psychology. In W. Baker, M. Hyland, R. van Hezewijk, & S. Terwee (Eds.), Recent trends in theoretical psychology. Proceedings of the Third Biennial Conference of the International Society for Theoretical Psychology, April 17-21, 1989 (Vol. 2, pp. 63-70). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-9688-8

Shotter, J. (1993). Conversational realities: Constructing life through language. London, England: Sage.

Shotter, J. (1995). In conversation: Joint action, shared intentionality and ethics. Theory and Psychology, 5, 49-73.

Shotter, J., & Gergen, K. (Eds.). (1989). Texts of identity. London, England: Sage.

Song, K.H. (1999). Helping Korean immigrant families to change child abuse problem: A postmodern multicultural language systems perspective (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Loyola University, Chicago, IL.

Song, K.H. (2004). Beyond multiculturalism in social work practice. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Song, K.-H. (2016). Multicultural and international approaches in social work practice: An intercultural perspective. Lanham, Maryland: Hamilton Books.

Song, K.S. (1986). Defining child abuse: Korean community study (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California, Los Angeles.

Tomm, K. (1987). Interventive interviewing: Part II. Reflective questioning as a means to enable self-healing. Family Process, 26, 167-183.

Tomm. K. (1988). Interventive interviewing: Part III. Intending to ask lineal, circular, strategic, or reflective questions? Family Process, 27(1) 1-15.

Tu, W. (1984). On neo-Confucianism and human relatedness. In G.A. Devos & T. Sofue (Eds.), Religion and family in East Asia (pp. 111-126). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Tu, W. (1985). Selfhood and otherness in Confucian thought. In A.J. Marshall, G. De Vos, & F.L.K. Hsu (Eds.), Culture and self: Asian and Western perspectives (pp. 231-251). London, England: Tavistock.

Wachterhauser, B.R. (1986). Hermeneutic and modern philosophy. New York, NY: State University of New York Press.

Warnke, G. (1987). Gadamer: Hermeneutics, tradition and reason. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Watzlawick, P. (1976). How real is real? New York, NY: Vintage.

Watzawick, P. (Ed.). (1984). The invented reality. New York, NY: Norton.

Yang, J.H. (2020). Kim Il Bu’s life and Philosophical thought. Daejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Books Publishing.

Yang, J. H.(2021a). Early-later haven and gaebyeok. In Sudhakar, G. Akhanyanov, C.Akhanyanov, Y. Yamato, K.S., Moom, C. You, D.J. Ahn, D.W. Seo, J.G. Won, J.H. Yang, and K.S. Whang. Jeung-san-do cultural philosophy research 1: Samsin god, early-later heaven gaebyeok (pp. 319-393). Daejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Books Publishing.

Yang, J.H. (2021b). Meet with juyeok: Conversation between Confucius and Il Bu (the second volume). Daejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Books Publishing.

You, C. (2001). The theory of the resolution of bitterness and grief in Jeung-san-do. The Journal of JeungSanDo Thought, 5, 43-101.

You, C. (2011). Return to the origin: Wonsibanbon, boeun, haewon, sangsang. Daejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Books Publishing.

You, C. (2021). Jeung-san-do’s creation-transformation thought: Dojeon 1:1 focused. In Sudhakar, G. Akhanyanov, C.Akhanyanov, Y. Yamato, K.S., Moom, C. You, D.J. Ahn, D.W. Seo, J.G. Won, J.H. Yang, and K.S. Whang. Jeung-san-do cultural philosophy research 1: Samsin God, Early-Later Heaven gaebyeok (pp. 165-223). Daejeon, South Korea: Sangsaeng Books Publishing.


twitter facebook kakaotalk kakaostory 네이버 밴드 구글+
사이트를 드러내지 않고, 컨텐츠만 SNS에 붙여넣을수 있습니다.